Bahas Pengendalian Karhutla, Upaya Indonesia Mendapat Apresiasi Global

JAKARTA – Direktorat Direktorat Pengendalian Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan (PKHL) Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (KLHK) menggelar talkshow bertema Role of the Land and Forest Fire Management on Indonesia’s Forest and Other Land Use (FOLU) Net Sink 2030, di Pavilion Indonesia pada COP 27 UNFCCC di Sharm El Sheikh, Mesir, beberapa waktu lalu (7/11/2022).

Adapun para pembicara pada talkskow tersebut adalah Direktur PKHL KLHK Basar Manulang, Direktur Pengendalian Kerusakan Ekosistem Gambut (PKEG) SPM Budisusanti, Global Managing Director for Climate Change, The Nature Conservancy Leonardo Lacerda, dan Senior Forestry Officer, Team Leader Forests & Climate Change, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Amy Duchelle.

Adapun pemandu diskusi adalah Nur Masripatin dari PSM Bidang Perubahan Iklim dan Konvensi Internasional KLHK.

Hasil dari talkshow tersebut, berhasil memberikan pandangan yang lebih luas dan tidak hanya dari spektrum nasional, namun juga global terkait upaya pengendalian kebakaran hutan dan lahan bisa berkontribusi positif bagi pencapaian target Indonesia FOLU Net Sink 2030.

Pada kesempatan tersebut, Basar Manulang menyampaikan, kolaborasi dengan masyarakat lokal dalam mencegah kebakaran hutan dan lahan sangat penting dalam mencapai FOLU Net Sink 2030. “Pengendalian karhutla meliputi berbagai upaya pencegahan, pemadaman, dan penanganan pasca,” papar Basar.

Sementara itu, Budisusanti menyampaikan, emisi CO2 dari gambut, antara lain bersumber dari perubahan vegetasi, kebakaran di gambut, peat subsidence, dan kurangnya tata kelola hidrologi gambut. Menurutnya, lahan gambut yang kering sangat mudah terbakar, sehingga pengelolaan lahan gambut berkelanjutan bisa mengurangi potensi terjadinya kebakaran di gambut yang dapat menyumbang emisi GRK.

“Strategi dalam pengelolaan lahan gambut untuk mencapai FOLU Net Sink, antara lain dilakukan dengan rewetting, rehabilitasi, peningkatan pendapatan masyarakat lokal, dan penegakan hukum,” ujar Budisusanti.

Dari perspektif global, Amy Duchelle menjelaskan, integrated fire management bisa dijadikan salah satu climate solution. Menurutnya, pengetahuan lokal dan tradisional dalam integrated fire management (IFM) merupakan salah satu strategi menanggulangi perubahan iklim. Pelaksanaan IFM mempertimbangkan kondisi sosial, ekonomi, dan masayarakat lokal. Ditambahkan, pada tahun 2000-2020, FAO mencatat kejadian kebakaran hutan dan lahan terjadi pada hampir semua negara.

“Untuk menangani karhutla di Indonesia, FAO menyarankan 5 R. yakni, Review, Risk Reduction, Readinesss, Response, dan Recovery. Pada 2022, FAO meluncurkan program Assuring the Future of Forest through Integrated Risk Management Mechanism (AFFIRM) dengan pendanaan dari Korea Forest Service. AFFIRM secara langsung menjadi bagan dari Global Fire Management Paltform yang dikembangkan FAO dan UNEP dalam meningkatkan kapasitas dalam penerapan IFM,” papar Amy.

Sementara itu, Leonardo Lacerda mengapresiasi keberhasilan Indonesia mengendalikan kebakaran hutan dan lahan pada beberapa tahun terakhir, sehingga kebakaran hutan dan lahan bisa diturunkan. Menurut Leonardo, jika Indonesia ingin mencapai net zero sink, sebetulnya sudah melakukan berbagai upaya yang sangat baik. Namun, ia mengingatkan bahwa berkolaborasi tetap diperlukan sebagai solusi yang mendasar.

Ditambahkan, beberapa strategi mencapai FOLU Net Sink 2030, antara lain melalui no-burn cropping, community wildfire adaptation, meningkatkan praktik kearifan lokal, dan melakukan prescribed fires sebagai salah satu bentuk manajemen bahan bakaran.

“Gambut di Indonesia mempunyai potensi yang luar biasa dalam mencapai penurunan target emisi, di mana pengelolaan kebakaran gambut merupakan kontribusi penting di dalam NDC,” kata Leonardo.(****)

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