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Kementerian Perdagangan Revisi Kebijakan DMO dan Dampaknya

JAKARTA – Sejak 1 Januari 2023, Pemerintah Indonesia memperketat kebijakan ekspor minyak sawit. Sebelumnya, pemerintah melalui Kementerian Perdagangan (Kemendag) merevisi kebijakan wajib pasok lokal atau domestic market obligation (DMO) minyak sawit atau crude palm oil (CPO). Pada ketentuan sebelumnya, rasio DMO ditetapkan 1:8 atau ekspor bisa delapan kali lipat dari jumlah yang diberikan untuk dalam negeri.

Namun, sejak Januari 2023 ini, rasio tersebut diturunkan proporsinya menjadi 1:6. Artinya, volume ekspor yang diberikan hanya enam kali lipat dari jumlah pasokan ke lokal.

Kebijakan pengurangan kuota impor tersebut diambil lantaran pemerintah ingin memastikan pasokan dalam negeri tercukupi selama Ramadan dan liburan Idulfitri pada April 2023. Selain itu, pemerintah beralasan potensinya melemahnya produksi CPO secara musiman pada kuartal pertama tahun 2023.

Peneliti Center for Market Education (CME) Indonesia Carmelo Ferlito mengatakan, semua kalangan memahami kebijakan yang diambil pemerintah Indonesia bertujuan meningkatkan suplai minyak sawit lokal di tengah tantangan kekurangan pasokan domestik. Di sisi lain, kebijakan tersebut berdampak pada penguncian global atau global lockdowns.

“Di sini terjadi penurunan skala penawaran dan permintaan. Namun, penyesuaian di sisi penawaran lebih lambat dan lebih menyakitkan,” papar Carmelo, beberapa waktu lalu (5/1/2023).

Carmelo meneruskan, dengan permintaan CPO yang meningkat dengan cepat, pasokan berjuang untuk mengatasi peningkatan permintaan.

“Ini menghasilkan harga yang lebih tinggi dan kelangkaan sementara. Proses penyesuaian selanjutnya diperlambat kebijakan pemerintah dan rasa ketidakpastian secara umum,” ujar Carmelo.

Ia berpandangan, kebijakan larangan ekspor atau penurunan ekspor tidak menjadi solusi yang tepat pada situasi sekarang ini. Menurutnya, agen ekonomi bereaksi terhadap insentif yang pada gilirannya menghasilkan ekspektasi.

“Agar pasokan bisa menyesuaikan dengan tingkat permintaan, penting agar semua insentif tetap hidup, harga tinggi sementara dan permintaan yang meningkat,” tegas Peneliti Senior di Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS) ini.

Menurut Carmelo, pembatasan ekspor memiliki sejumlah dampak. Hal tersebut dikarenakan sebagian dari insentif dihapus—dalam istilah teknis—sebagian dari permintaan benar-benar dihilangkan dan permintaan domestik tidak bisa menggantikan permintaan internasional.

“Hilangnya pasar potensial akan mengurangi insentif pasokan dalam mengatasi permintaan yang meningkat, yang selanjutnya memberikan tekanan pada ketegangan harga,” ucapnya.

Hasil akhirnya, bukan lebih banyak CPO yang tersedia untuk pasar domestik. Sebaliknya, negara akan memiliki lebih sedikit minyak yang tersedia (produksi dibatasi) dan harga yang berpotensi lebih tinggi.

“Jika permintaan lokal tidak mampu menyerap sebagian dari produksi yang ditujukan untuk ekspor dan sudah berproduksi, lebih banyak stok akan terakumulasi, menimbulkan kerugian bagi produsen,” kata Carmelo.

Sebelumnya, CME membangun fokus penelitian pada kebijakan ekonomi global. Terutama pada masa pandemi Covid-19. CME merupakan lembaga think thank kebijakan ekonomi yang berpusat di Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Lembaga ini bertujuan mempromosikan pendekatan ekonomi yang pluralistik-multidisiplin dan menyebarkan pengetahuan ekonomi yang kuat didasarkan pada pemahaman tentang pasar.

Sebelumnya, Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi dan Masyarakat Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Indonesia (LPEM-UI) menyatakan, kebijakan DMO dan Domestic Price Obligation (DPO) menimbulkan risiko ketidakpastian dan inefisiensi perdagangan minyak sawit mentah atau CPO.

Selama diterapkan, kebijakan non-tarif barrier tersebut justru membatasi volume ekspor dan menghambat pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia. Dalam penelitian LPEM UI 2022, dampak dari diberlakukannya DMO dan DPO dan penghentian ekspor 28 April-22 Mei 2022 menurunkan Product Domestic Bruto (PDB) pada Q2-2022 sebesar 3 persen.(****)

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